Family Histories

The Farmers of West Hull: Connections to the Maxwells of Wakefield

Prepared by D Jeffrey Brown, April-July 2020.1

The 1875 Valuation Roll of the Municipality of West Hull (the “1875 Valuation Roll”) identified landowners in West Hull, which corresponds roughly to Chelsea and Cantley, Quebec, today. It covers an area on either side of the Gatineau River spanning from Farmer’s Rapids in the south to Cascades in the north, but not as far up as Wakefield. Nevertheless, the families identified on the map include names relevant to the Maxwells of Wakefield, and possibly the Browns of Wakefield.

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

The 1875 Valuation Roll map is reproduced above along with Lot and Range numbers (on the vertical and horizontal axes, respectively).2 The following is a brief introduction to these families. At present, it is limited to Maxwells and related families.3 While the map includes several Browns, I have not made a connection to any of these Browns (who are presumably from the family I refer to as the “Browns of Cantley”) and the Browns of Wakefield. Such a connection may exist, but additional research is required to confirm this.

1. William Larmour (Wife Margaret Pink) and Francis Larmour4,5

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

In 1875, William Larmour (1776-1852), his wife Margaret Pink (1797-1879; pictured right) and their son, Francis Larmour (1824-1904), were farming the same land that William had purchased upon their arrival in Canada in 1830: Lot 19, Range 16 in Hull Township6 (and more specifically, in the part of Hull Township then known as West Hull, with their farm located a few farms inland on the east side of the Gatineau River not far from Cascades).

William Larmour was born in about 1776,7 in Belfast, County Antrim, Ireland, and died in Hull, Quebec in 1852 at the age of about 76.8 He married Margaret Pink in Ireland in about 1819. She was born in about 17979 and died in Wakefield, Quebec on November 23, 1879, at the age of about 82. They are buried in Pink Cemetery in Aylmer, Quebec.10

The story of the Pinks has been documented by descendants11 of the Pinks and by Anson Gard in his 1906 book Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa.12 Three of Margaret Pink’s brothers—James (1791-187013), Samuel (1795-1854) and Charles (1750-1848)—and her sister Isabella (1793-1861) and Isabella’s husband, Alexander Moffatt (1791-1832), came to Canada in 1822. They sailed on the Alexander of White Heaven, captained by Captain Boddle with Alexander serving as a mate on the ship. They sailed from Belfast on May 10, 1822 and arrived at Quebec on July 6, 1822. From Quebec, they sailed to Montreal and then to Hull, where they settled.14 Samuel and Charles returned to Ireland, where they married (Mary Elliott and Catherine McGechan, respectively).15 They returned to Canada (Charles in 1830; Samuel in 1831) and bought land near James. In addition to his wife and children, Charles returned to Canada with his parents, Charles Pink Sr. (1750-1848) and Isabella Currie (1752-1842).16

Margaret Pink married William Larmour in Ireland in about 1819. The first four of their five children were born in Ireland:17 David was born on March 13, 1820, and settled in New York City;18 James was born in 1823, spent time in Australia with John McLaren and was killed after returning to Canada while working in the Bruce Copper Mine, near Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario;19 Francis John was born on September 3, 1824, and, as discussed below, took over the family farm after his mother died; and Isabella (Bella), who was born on April 9, 1827, married Edward Thompson.20 Their fifth child, Agnes Pink Larmour, was born in in West Hull, Quebec.21 She would go on to marry Thomas Maxwell,22 and they farmed and raised their family in Wakefield on what is now Chemin Maxwell.23

As William Larmour died in about 1852, the farm would have been occupied by his wife, Margaret Pink, and their son, Francis Larmour, at the time the 1875 Valuation Roll was prepared. Margaret died shortly afterward, in 1879,24 after which the farm would have been occupied by Francis and his family. And yet, there is no record in the 1881 census of Larmours being in the area. Francis, along with his sons James, John and William, reappear in the 1891 census, which shows them living in the Selkirk District (Dufferin South Sub-District) of Manitoba. The absence of any record of the “West Hull” Larmours in the 1881 census (in Quebec or Canada) may be the result of the following sequence of facts.

According to the 1861 census, Francis John Larmour was a widower. He was first married to Mary Alice Pink (1828-1860), who was the daughter of Charles Pink Jr. (1798-1868) and Catherine McGechan (1800- 1870). Mary died young, at the age of 32, leaving Francis and, according to the 1871 census, two daughters: Mary, who was born in about 1854; and Catherine, who was born in about 1859.25 By the time of the 1871 census, Francis had married Martha Reid, who was born in Cascades in 1835. She was the daughter of James R Reid and Ann Maxwell, whose farm also appears on the 1875 Valuation Roll.26 Francis and Martha had six children: Annie (1863-?); David (1867-1928); Sarah (1869-?); James (1871- 1949); John Alexander (1873-1960); and William (1876-?). Given Annie’s birth in 1863, Francis and Martha presumably married between 1861 and 1863.

Martha appears in the 1871 census, but she died before the 1881 census (+ in 1876). Francis’ mother, Margaret Pink, also appears in the 1871 census as living with Francis and Martha, and she died in 1879. The absence of Francis and his family from the 1881 census may be due to a combination of daughters marrying (and taking on new names) or dying young (Sarah, for example, was too young to marry) and Francis selling the farm to move with his sons to Manitoba (although David does not appear to have travelled with them, so his whereabouts would remain a mystery). These specific reasons are just speculation, but we do know that Francis, along with James, John and William, were in Manitoba by 1891, and the 1901 census indicates that Francis was still in Manitoba living with his son, John, in 1901. Francis died shortly after, in 1904, at the age of 79.27

2. Thos. Maxwell and Thos. Maxwell (John)28,29

The proximity of Thomas Maxwell’s properties might suggest this would be Thomas “Red Tom” Maxwell (1835-1900), who married William Larmour and Margaret Pink’s daughter, Agnes Pink Larmour (1834- 1921). However, the censuses of 1871 and 1881 place Red Tom in Wakefield, Quebec in 1871 and in British Columbia in 1881.30 We can also rule out Thomas William Maxwell, who died in 1869 (before the 1875 Valuation Roll was done). Instead, it appears these properties were owned by Red Tom’s cousin, Thomas Maxwell (1829-1920), whose father, Thomas William Maxwell, was the brother of Red Tom’s father, William Burnette Maxwell.31

Thomas Maxwell was married to Mary Jane Milne. Mary was the daughter of David Milne, who owned properties close to those of Thomas Maxwell (see “3. David Milne”, below). Moreover, the 1871 census shows Thomas Maxwell and Mary living in West Ottawa, District 93, Sub-district B, Township of Hull, Division 2, which falls within the scope of the 1875 Valuation Roll.32

Thomas Maxwell was born in 1829 in Ireland to Thomas William Maxwell (1792-1869) and Catherine McVeigh (1803-1877). His father’s parents were Anselm Maxwell (1770-?) and Sarah Wells (1780-?), who are the first known ancestors of the Wakefield Maxwells.33 Anselm and Sarah were born in Scotland, but they emigrated to Killeagh, County Down, Ireland, where they had six children: Thomas William (1792-1869); Martha (1798-1851); John (Jack) (1801-1877); Anselm Hance (Hance) (180134-1881); William Burnette (1808-1857); and Ann (1809-1890).

All of Anselm and Sarah’s (known) children emigrated to Canada, albeit arriving at different times. The first to come to Canada was Hance, who arrived in the early 1820s.35 Hance went first to Chelsea, and eventually to Denholm, where he lived just across the river from Low, near the Paugan Dam.

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

While still in Chelsea, Hance wrote to his brother John (Jack), who joined him there.36 A third brother, William Burnette Maxwell, joined them in 1832, and farmed briefly there. His farm was at the southeast corner of the old Highway 11 and the road into Chelsea.37 In one of her books on the history of Wakefield, Norma Geggie, referring to John and William Burnette, wrote that “[t]he Maxwell brothers, William and John, crossed Meech Creek as it flowed into the Gatineau, taking land bordering the west bank of the river” in Wakefield between 1830 and 1835.38,39 This is consistent with a 1835 survey of Wakefield (above), which (at the lower left) shows two Maxwells on the west shore of the Gatineau River,40 as well as a plaque at Hall’s Cemetery indicating the year of the Maxwell’s arrival in Wakefield as 1832.

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Thomas Maxwell arrived in Canada with his parents later, in 1846.41 By 1851, the Canada East census showed the three brothers living close to one another. This is confirmed by the agricultural census of that same year, which recorded “John Maxwell” and “William Maxwell” farming at Range 1, Lot 3-4 (unchanged from the 1835 survey of Wakefield) and “Thomas Maxwell” farming Range 2, Lot 6, on the other side of the Gatineau River, slightly north of where John and William were located.42

Thomas Maxwell was born in Ireland in 1829. According to the 1851 census—four years after his arrival in Canada—Thomas was living with his parents and four siblings in Wakefield. By 1861, at which time he would have been 32 years old, the census shows that he was married to “Mary Mylne” (sic) and that they had an infant daughter, Jane, who was not yet one year. Moreover, they were now living in the Township of Hull, not far Mary’s father, “David Mylne” (sic), while Thomas’s parents continued to live in Wakefield.43

Thomas Maxwell’s wife, Mary Jane Milne, was born on July 28, 1836. While most records state she was born in Quebec,44 whether she was born in Hull, or on the farm identified on the 1875 Valuation Roll, is not known.45 She and Thomas were married in Ottawa on April 14, 1858,46 which is interesting given that they both had roots and settled on the Quebec side of the Ottawa River.47 They went on to have five children between 1860 and 1874: Jane (1860-1940); Joseph (1862-?); Catherine (1863-1881); William T (1869-?) and Martha (1874-1943).

3. David Milne48,49

David Milne was born in Scotland in about 1803.50 He was married to Jane Hadley, who was born in Ireland in about 1805.51 David died on January 29, 1886, in Cantley, Quebec. Jane died three years later, on September 11, 1889, in Chelsea, Quebec.

David and Jane were the parents of Thomas Maxwell’s wife, Mary Jane Milne (see “2. Thos. Maxwell and Thos. Maxwell (John)”, above). In addition to Mary Jane (1836-?), David and Jane had at least three other children: Agnes (1832-?); Margaret (1838-?); and Isabella (1842-?).52 All four of their children were born in Canada. They also appear to have raised a boy named John Cuthbert from a young age. He is listed as part of the household in both the 1851 (age three) and 1861 (age 11) censuses, and he is identified as having been born in Upper Canada.

It is not known precisely when David and Jane arrived in Canada. Since census records indicate that all of their children were born in Canada, they arrived before their eldest child, Agnes, was born in about 1832.53 In addition, the 1842 and 1851 Canada East censuses indicate that the Milne family was present in Hull from at least as early as 1842, most likely (based on the names of neighbours in the two censuses) in the same location as shown on the 1875 Valuation Roll.

4. Wm. Maxwell54, 55

“Wm. Maxwell” on the 1875 Valuation Roll map appears to refer to William W “Hip Billy” or “Peg Leg” 56 Maxwell (1833-1899).57

“Hip Billy” was the son of William Burnette Maxwell and Jane McMillan (1801-1892). He was born in about 1834,58 shortly after his parent’s arrival in Lower Canada, and died in Wakefield on November 1, 1899. At the time of the 1871 Canada census, Hip Billy was still living, unmarried, with his mother, Jane McMillan (1801-1892) and her second husband, John (Jack) Maxwell (1801-1877),59 along with his sister Martha Carman and her two children, Elizabeth and Simeon.60 In 1881, William, was still unmarried and living with his mother, his sister Martha and her son Simeon, as well as his sister Sarah, who appears to have never married. However, rather than living in Wakefield, the names of their neighbours—e.g., Hall, Baldwin, Stevenson and Carman—coincide to names found near Wm. Maxwell on the 1875 Valuation Roll map. One explanation for the move could be the death of John Maxwell, however he died in 1877, which suggests that they may have moved while he was still alive.

Hip Billy eventually married in 1884, at the age of about 51. He married Margaret McBryde (1857-1924) in Wakefield on January 16, 1884.61 Hip Billy and Margaret had five children together, all of whom were born in Farm Point:

  • Ellen Jane Maxwell (1884-1887) died as an infant, at the age of three.
  • Elizabeth Florence Maxwell (1887-1947) married Robert Howard (Howard) Caves (1887-1914) in 1908, with whom she had five children. After Howard died in 1914,62 Elizabeth remarried to Levi Carman Reid (1885-1964)63 and they had four children (one of whom died at childbirth, or at less than 12 months of age).64
  • Martha (Mattie) Eleanor Maxwell (1889-1959) married Thomas Henry Martin (1868-1933) in 1919. They married in Ottawa, where she was working as a bookkeeper, and likely lived there until her death on December 31, 1959.
  • William John Frederick (Fred) Maxwell (1891-1953)65 married Sarah Aleda (Aleda) Grimes (1892- 1982) in 1919. Fred was a farmer, and their family farm was on the west side of the Gatineau River, close to his father’s farm.66 Aleda was certified as a teacher in Laval, Quebec, and she took a job teaching in Farm Point, which is how she met Fred. Fred (who stood 6’6”) died in Farm Point in 1953, and Aleda died in Ottawa in 1982. They are buried at Hall’s Cemetery in Wakefield.
  • Thomas Henry Maxwell (1893-1962) married Elizabeth Rutledge (1886-1959). They lived in a large house with a veranda in Alcove, on the small road down by the river, which remains in their family today. Thomas and Elizabeth are buried at Rupert Union Cemetery, in Rupert, Quebec.67
Farmers connections to the Maxwells

The property of Fred Maxwell and Aleda Grimes (house pictured right68) is of historical significance. As remembered by Fred and Aleda’s daughter, Jean, the Canadian government combed the country during the World War II seeking resources to support the war effort. The family observed a couple camped in a tent on or near their farm, and Fred pointed them to a spring from which they could source fresh water. The couple discovered a brucite deposit on the farm property, which could be mined and used to produce magnesium. The Maxwells sold the farm to the Aluminum Company of Canada (Alcan) in 1940, which built a mine and plant on the property. Fred, who worked with dynamite on the farm (e.g., to remove roots), took a job at the plant as an explosives expert. After Alcan closed the plant in 1968, Mervin Morrison purchased the property and the mine became known as the “Morrison Mine”, although Maxwells would no doubt argue that a better case can be made that it should be remembered as the “Maxwell Mine”!69

Hip Billy died on November 1, 1899, and his wife, Margaret, died on February 28, 1924. They are buried at Hall’s Cemetery, in Wakefield.

5. James Reid70,71

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

James R Reid (1803-1896) was born in about 1803 in Belfast, County Down, Ireland.72 He emigrated to Canada in 183273 and settled on the east side of the Gatineau River, in Cascades, Quebec, on land (pictured right) that now includes the Mont Cascades golf club.74 The property (Lot 17N, Range XIV; see inset right) was the subject of a 100-acre land grant to Thomas Reid on February 4, 1873 covering the North ½ of Lot 17, Range 14.75 Who was Thomas Reid? This is not known at this time.76

James married Ann Maxwell (1809-1890) before emigrating to Canada, most likely in the late 1820s or 1830.77 As noted previously, Ann was the daughter of Anselm Maxwell (1770-?) and Sarah Wells (1780-?) and was one of the first generation of Wakefield Maxwells.

When James and Ann settled in Canada, they arrived with their second child, Jane, who was born in Ireland in 1831.78 Once in Canada, they had 12 more children: Martha (1835-1876); an infant who was born and died in 1836; William (1837-1921); James (1839-1904); John (1841-1916), Robert (1844-1923); Ann (1844-1931); Thomas (1847-1899); Mary (1849-1876); Sarah (1850- 1939); and Margaret (1854-1933).

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

A profile published in The Ottawa Journal in 189579 (right) shows that James Reid was active in the community. He held many “prominent positions”, including “councillor for six years, school commissioner for four years, president of the road company for seven years, an elder in the Presbyterian church twenty years, [and] … judge at the fall fairs at Aylmer and judge at plowing matches.”

As the following extract from J.L. Gourlay’s History of the Ottawa Valley,80 published in 1896, shows, James Reid is also an example of the prominent role played by religion in 19th century Canadian society, and how the church helped bring pioneering families together:

Mr. Reid is one of the few that first associated together to form a congregation of Presbyterians in Wakefield. Masham was at first a preaching station in connection with Wakefield, which has the honor of being the first organized Presbyterian church in the county of Ottawa. Hull had a congregational church. The Kirks, Reids, Gordons, Maxwells, Strachans, Pattersons, Stevensons, Moncriefs, McLarins [sic], Fairbairns, Pritchards, Nesbitts, Gibsons, McNairs, Duncans, and a multitude of others we could mention, formed the congregation at first about the year 1846. That is about 46 or 47 years of age. The eldership was composed of strong men who were well read in Scripture and the principles of the Presbyterian church. James Reid, Thomas Stevenson, John Pritchard, Foster Moncrief, John McNair, Thomas Duncan, M. Kennedy. …81

James’ sense of duty to community was passed on to his son James (James Jr.), who was born in Wakefield, Quebec, on August 2, 1839. James Jr. moved to British Columbia in 1862, where he entered the mining business through the firm of Reid & Hudson, and as President of the Quesnelle Quartz Mining Co., in the Cariboo region of British Columbia. Like his father, he also went into politics, first as a federal Member of Parliament and later as a Canadian Senator,82 and he was profiled in The Canadian Parliamentary Companion and Annual Register, 188183 (see above).

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Senator Reid’s early years in British Columbia were spent with his cousin, John Maxwell (1836-1915),84 who was also a prominent citizen in the community. John served as the Reeve of Langley in 1878-1879, 1884 and 1889-1891. The two cousins’ exploits were summarized in an online history of Fort Langley, called “The Children of Fort Langley”:

Fighter John Maxwell cut a wide swath in the municipality's growing up years. He had pre-empted over 400 acres a mile and a half southeast of the fort in 1871. Born in Ireland in 1838 he had sailed to Canada with relatives at the age of ten. His first job upon reaching manhood had been breaking log jams on the Gatineau River in the Province of Quebec. He was no stranger to British Columbia, having left Wakefield, Quebec, in 1862 with a cousin James Reid, to try his luck in the Cariboo. Instead of striking it rich he took sick that winter and Reid had to pack him out to the hospital in New Westminster by dog sled. The trip from Lillooet, via the Harrison-Lillooet Wagon Road, was a nightmare. Hampered by deep snow they ran out of food and were forced to eat their dogs. Reid struggled along on foot with his delirious partner. Stopping to rest, he managed to shoot a whisky jack. He shook out their flour bags for a second time and managed to make a broth, using the camp-robbing bird to keep them from starving to death. When Maxwell recovered he refused to return to the Cariboo and instead went back to Ontario. Reid went back to the Cariboo and prosperity. Going into partnership with Hibbard Hudson, he built the largest store in Quesnel, before getting involved in riverboat construction, flour and sawmills, and mine management. He eventually became a Member of Parliament and served Cariboo in that capacity until 1881 when he was made a Senator. He held that position until his death in 1904.

Maxwell left Ontario again in 1871 for British Columbia to buy land in the fertile Fraser Valley. For the first years of Langley Municipality's existence, he was always actively involved in its politics. The only two meetings he missed were in July and August of 1874 when he was back in Wakefield, Ontario, trying to persuade a young Elizabeth Carmen, the daughter of a United Empire Loyalist, to marry and accompany him back to British Columbia. He had a hard time convincing her that Canada's newly acquired most westerly province was the land of plenty. At last she consented to marry him, and the pair, along with her mother and brother Simeon, came to Langley.85

James Reid and Ann Maxwell lived long lives on their farm in Cascades. Ann died on May 12, 1890, at the age of 81, and James followed, six years later, on February 11, 1896, at the age of 93. Ann was buried at Hall’s Cemetery in Wakefield, Quebec, with a headstone placed by her husband in her memory. It is not known where James is buried.

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

6. John Reid86,87

The 1851 census shows James R Reid and his wife Ann (Maxwell) living with James’ parents, John Reid (aged 71, born in Ireland88) and Jane Reid89 (aged 70, born in Ireland).90 John and Jane both died in 1861, which rules them out as owners of the property identified on the 1875 Valuation Roll under the name John Reid. Rather, the John Reid on the 1875 Valuation Roll refers to James and Ann’s son (pictured right), who, according to the 1871 census, was a neighbour of his parents.

John Reid (1841-1916) was born on May 24, 1841 in Cascades, Quebec.91 He married Alice Cates (1853-1903) in 1869. Alice grew up close to John and his family. Her father was born in the United States, and the 1861 census identified his occupation as “innkeeper”. Alice’s mother was born in Canada, on May 3, 1852.

John and Alice had six children: James (1870-1961); Alida (1871-1908); Mary (Minnie) (1874-?); Annie (1876-?); Margaret (Maggie) (1885-1968); and John Lindsay (1894-191792).93 The 1901 census identifies James (pictured right, with his wife) as married, and his wife, Annie Ellard (1873-1971), and their three children, Elsie, Seth and Percival living within the John and Alice Reid household.

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Based on the censuses of 1871, 1881, 1891 and 1901, John and Alice continued to live on their farm in Cascades, Quebec, with other members of John’s family nearby. After Alice died in 1903,94 John moved west, to Manitoba, with his son James and his family. The 1911 census shows John living with James and his family in Souris, Manitoba. John died in Albert, Manitoba on May 23, 1916, and he is buried in Melita, Manitoba.

7. Thomas Reid95,96

Located immediately to the north of James Reid and to the east of Thomas Maxwell, the 1875 Valuation Roll shows the property of “Thomas Read”. Despite the spelling, this refers to James R Reid and Ann Maxwell’s son, Thomas Maxwell Reid (1847-1899),97 who, along with his wife Marion Marsh Neill (1850-1930), is identified in the 1881 census as living near his brothers John and Robert.

Thomas and Marion married on April 26, 1877, in Ottawa, with the marriage registration identifying Thomas’ profession as “merchant”. While this would suggest that Thomas, who had not yet married Marion in 1875, was likely living on the property alone in 1875, the 1871 census shows a 22 year-old Thomas Reid living in the same household as 22 year-old “Mary”, and identifies his occupation as “storekeeper”.98 It would have been unusual at this time for Thomas and Marion to have lived together, but the ages in the 1871 census correspond to those in their marriage registration, as does Thomas’ occupation.99 By 1881, Thomas was working as a millwright, and the 1891 census identified him as a “mill owner”. Whether he (and possibly Marion) also continued to work as a merchant is unknown. We do know, however, that Thomas served as postmaster while he lived in West Hull.100

Whereas Thomas and Marion had lived in West Hull in 1871 and 1877, the 1881 census identified them as living in South Hull, suggesting that they may have sold the property where they had lived in 1875. In 1898, for reasons unknown, they moved again, to Fort William, Ontario (now part of Thunder Bay). In Fort William, Thomas worked briefly as a millwright and served as the deacon in his local Baptist Church. Only about a year after arriving in Fort William, Thomas died of pneumonia, following a short illness, on October 27, 1899, at the age of 52.101 According to the death registration, Thomas worked as a “Mill- Wright” in Fort William. Marion stayed in Fort William (Thunder Bay), where she died on September 5, 1930, at the age of 79.102

8. Robert James Reid103,104 and William Carman105,106

Robert James Reid (1844-1923) was the son of James R Reid and Ann Maxwell, and therefore a brother of Thomas Maxwell Reid (discussed above). Robert married Elizabeth Carman107 (1853-1935) in 1875, and they farmed on the “old Reid homestead”108 where Robert’s parents James and Ann farmed.109

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

While they lived on the farm of Robert’s parents, the property attributed to “Robt James Reid” on the 1875 Valuation Roll map is located northwest of the James and Ann Reid’s properties. It is not clear how Robert came to own this land, but it is possible to speculate based on the fact it neighbours the property of William Carman.110

There were three William Carmans living in the Township of Hull in the mid-to-late 1800s:

  • William Carman “Sr.” (William Sr) (1798-1873). William Sr. was born in Iroquois, Ontario in 1798, and farmed in Hull for several years (and worked as a tavern keeper, according to the 1861 census).111 While he may have owned the neighbouring property, he died two years before, on April 16, 1873, in Wakefield, Quebec.
  • William Carman “Jr.” (William Jr.) (1827-1861). William Jr. was William Sr.’s son. He was born in 1827, and he married Martha Maxwell (the daughter of William Burnette Maxwell and Jane McMillan). Based on census records, he died between 1851 and 1861 (some time between the birth of his and Martha’s second child, in 1854, and the 1861 census).
  • William Carman, son of Lewis (1847-1917). The last William Carman was the son of William Jr.’s brother, Levias (Lewis), who was the brother of Robert Reid’s wife, Elizabeth. He was born in 1847 and died in 1917.

As between these William Carmans, the most likely owner of the property was William Carman Sr. While he died in 1873, census records suggest that his (second) wife, Margaret Clarke, continued to live on the property with their children after his death. If so, Robert may have acquired the property neighbouring that of his wife’s (or future wife, as they married in 1875) grandfather. Alternatively, the property could have been owned by William Carman, son of Lewis, who was the brother of Elizabeth. This possibility would seem to be contradicted by the fact that, while William lived in the area at the time of the 1871 census, by 1873 he was living in Iroquois, where he married his first wife, Hannah Caroline Merkely (1849-1882). Moreover, he was still in Iroquois when Hannah died in 1882, and when he remarried to Emma Wallace (1854-1903). Nevertheless, Robert could have acquired the neighbouring property with a view to farming both his acquired property and the property owned by his (absentee) brother-in-law.

9. Thomas Link112, 113

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Thomas Link (1819-1902) was born in March Township (which forms part of the present-day Kanata area of Ottawa) on October 26, 1819, and he is considered one of the early settlers of Chelsea.114 He married Jane Moffatt (1819- 1909; pictured right with Thomas) in his hometown on June 6, 1848, and it is through Jane, whose mother was Margaret Pink’s sister, Isabella Pink (1793-1861), that the connection to the Maxwells of Wakefield exists. Their property neighboured George Link, who “is believed” to be Thomas’ brother.115

Thomas’ father was Francis Link (1791-1853), who came to Canada from England with Philomen Wright’s son, Ruggles.116 Francis married Jane Shouldice (1797-1875) in Ottawa (though they were both residents of Hull, Quebec at the time) on February 11, 1819,117 and they settled in Chelsea, Quebec. In addition to Thomas, who was the second youngest of seven, their children included Crawford (married Elizabeth Wellington), Mary (married Seth Cates), Francis (married Mary Barton), Susanna (unmarried), George (married Mrs. William Peterson), Nicholas118 (married Anna Hudson), Jane (married John Hudson)119 and John (drowned).

Jane’s parents were Alexander Moffatt (1791-1832) and Isabella Pink (1793-1861). With connections to the Moffatt, Pink and Link families, Jane had roots in some of the earliest and most prominent settlers of the area.120

The significance of the Pinks has already been discussed above, in relation to Margaret Pink, whose arrival in Canada was preceded by that of her various siblings. In fact, Jane arrived in Canada as a child with her parents and other members of the Moffatt and Pink families, including siblings of Margaret Pink. Although she was only four at the time, she remembered details of the journey (on her own and through stories passed on by her family). Her recollections were recorded by a family member in about 1896, when she was 87:

At the age of 87, Jane Moffatt, who was four at the time she came on the boat with her family in 1822, recalled the trip as follows:

It took six weeks to come, … What most impressed my young mind was to see them throw people into the water, tied up in a long white sack, with shot tied to their feet. I thought it was awful to treat anyone that way. I don’t believe I shall ever forget how it seemed to me. … When we got to Quebec we left the ship and came to Montreal in what they called bateaux. From Montreal we went to a place called Lachine now. I don’t know what it was called then. Here we took the same kind of boats and came to where Ottawa is now. It wasn’t anything then. We landed in Hull, as Father used afterward to tell us. Oh but it was wild out here then, there were some people living in the country, but it was all woods with only little patches cleared. That was a long time ago. …121

Jane was the second of eight children, and one of three born in Ireland. Her older brother, Timothy (1816-1898), who is responsible for recording much of what we know today about his family’s history,122 went on to be a prominent citizen of South Hull. He married Susannah Hurdman, who was born in 1820 in New York City,123 and was elected as the first Mayor of West Hull Municipality Council on March 1, 1875. The third child born before they emigrated to Canada was Alexander (1821-1889), who married Mary Halpenny (1852-1937). Jane’s remaining siblings were: Robert (1823-1876), who married Jessie (Janet) Angus (1830-1915); Charles Pink (1825-1903), who married Agnes Park Gillespie (1842-1934); Mary (1828-1891), who married William Maxwell Hurdman124 (1819-1881); James (1829-1912), a “well known surveyor” who married Isabella Pink125 and lived in Wakefield (1843-1914); and Margaret (1832-1909), who married Robert Bayne126 (1825-1899).

Thomas Link and Jane Moffatt had seven children. Isabelle (1849-1926) married Alexander Pink (1832- 1913), and they are discussed in greater detail below (10. Alexander Pink and Robert Pink). Mary Alice (1851-1936) married Robert Radmore127 (1838-1916) in 1855,128 and they settled in South Hull on a farm originally purchased by his father, Emanuel Radmore.129 Jemima (Jennie) Alexandra (1863-1888) married Theodore G Nankin (1860-1898) in 1885. Theodore was born in Cologne, Germany, and came to Canada as a child. They had three children; one survived only a few months, and Jemima died giving birth to the third, who Theodore named Jemima Link Nankin in her memory. Theodore remarried to Jemima’s older sister, Margaret Ann, who raised Theodore and Jemima’s two children, and supported the family at the end of Theodore’s life, which was cut short by failing health aggravated by misfortunes in business.130 Thomasina (1858-1901) married John Calvin Fulford in Chelsea, Quebec, on December 29, 1897. They moved to Louise, Manitoba shortly after the marriage, as she died there only four years later at the age of 39.131 Jane (1856-1902) married George Alexander Sparks132 (1858-1913). Finally, Thomas Francis Link (Thomas Jr.) (1859-1942) married Catherine Jane (Jennie) Stanger (1862-1939) in 1889, in Aylwin, Quebec.133 They had no biological children, but they adopted two children and lived in a house in Old Chelsea, located across from what was then Dunn’s Hotel. The Dunn’s Hotel was previously the Dean’s Hotel, and today it houses the Chelsea Pub.134 Thomas and Jennie suffered from dementia in their later years. Senility was identified as the cause of Thomas’ death in 1942,135 and Jennie died of “malnutrition” due to “senile dementia, old age, sclerosis.”136

Thomas Link died on January 10, 1902 at the age of 83.137 Jane died of “old age” at her residence on July 4, 1909, at the age of 91, at which time she was “[p]robably the oldest resident of Old Chelsea.”138 She and Thomas are buried at Beechwood Cemetery in Ottawa with their son, Thomas Francis Link, and his wife, Jane Stanger. Many other members of the Link family are buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Old Chelsea.139

10. Hugh Pink140, 141

Hugh Pink (1838-?)142 was the son of James Currie Pink (1791-1870) and Agnes (Nancy) Elliott (1802- 1889).143 His parents were among the Pinks and Moffatts, including the siblings of Margaret Pink, who travelled to Canada from Belfast in 1822 on the Alexander of White Heaven. While, as noted previously, two of the brothers, Samuel and Charles, went back to Ireland and returned (several years later) to Canada with wives, Hugh’s father, James, was the brother who came in 1822 and never went back, settling in South Hull.144

Hugh married Anna (Annie) Semple (1846-1903) in Ottawa, Canada West, on June 6, 1862. Annie was born in Ireland to John Semple and Catherine Elliot and emigrated to Canada as a child in 1851.145 Both Hugh and Annie died in Manitoba, although when they left Quebec for Manitoba is unclear. There is no record of Hugh Pink and his family in the 1871 or 1881 censuses, but they appear in the 1891 census living in Selkirk, Manitoba with three children (James, age 23; Lucy, age 18 and Fanny, age 14, all born in Quebec). By the 1901 census, Hugh appears to have died, and Annie was living alone in Louise, Manitoba.146,147 Annie died in 1903, and she and Hugh are buried at Greenwood Cemetery in Pilot Mound, Manitoba.

11. Robert Pink148 and Alexander Pink (Dark Pink)149,150

Brothers Robert Pink (1841-1901) and Alexander Pink (1832-1913) were sons of Samuel Pink (1795- 1854) and Mary Elliott (1801-1891).

Robert Pink was born in Hull on June 27, 1841, and he was married to Caroline (Carrie) Rolston (1858- 1924), who was born in March Township.151 While his name appears on the 1875 Valuation Roll, Robert did not stay in West Hull long after it was done. By 1878, he and Caroline were living in Osgoode Township, where Robert worked as a merchant and their only child, James Archibald, was born. Robert died in Ottawa on October 29, 1901.152 After he died, Carrie remarried to Reverend Thomas Brown in 1907,153 and she eventually moved to Montreal, where she died on November 30, 1924.154 She is buried with Robert at Springhill Cemetery in Osgoode, Ontario.155

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Alexander married Isabelle Link in 1873. They had three children: Isabella Margaret (Margaret) Pink (1874-1917) and twins Jennie Maud Pink (1879-1913) and Thomas Samuel Pink (1879-1966) (pictured below, with their parents):

  • Margaret married James Edward Murphy (1876-1932),156 an Ottawa policeman, in 1899,157 and they moved shortly after to Escabana, Delta County, Michigan, where he worked as an engineer for the Northwestern Railroad. Margaret died on June 13, 1917 of a ruptured appendix, leaving James (who lived until 1932) and five children.
  • Jennie Maud (1879-1913) never married, and she died tragically, of suicide, on September 9, 1913.158
  • Thomas Samuel (1879-1966) farmed on his parents’ farm into his thirties,159 then married Emily Olmstead (1880-1961) and they settled in South Hull. Emily was the daughter of Henry Olmstead (1841-1916) and her mother was a Frances (Fanny) Maxwell (1847-1923). Fanny was a member of the South Hull Maxwells, whose relationship to the Wakefield Maxwells is unclear.160 Thomas died in 1966, and he was predeceased by Emily, who died in 1961. They had no children.

Isabelle Link worked as a teacher at the local school in South Hull.161 The school building, which doubled as a church, was called “The Old Tabernacle”. It took the form of an “old log-house” located “beside the Mountain Road, just to the west of the Moffatt brothers,” and it “was built in 1830, making it the oldest school and church building, still standing [in 1906], in the valley of the Ottawa.”162 Given its age, its students included Isabelle Link’s mother, Jane Moffatt.163 The family connections go further, as both Jane Moffatt’s father, Alexander Moffatt (1791-1832), and her mother, Isabella Pink (1793-1861), were part of the team that “raised” the Old Tabernacle in 1830, which event was described by Gard:

One day … I chanced to speak of this old house to a man past his allotted time, who said: “Would you know the men who ‘raised’ the Tabernacle? I will tell you, for I so often heard my father speak of them all, for my memory goes back a long ways. Here they are: Benjamin Simmons, John Simmons, the brother who went into Carleton but came here in his old days, died, and was buried in the Pink Cemetery; Wm. and John Cook, George Routcliffe, James Wilson, Jack Hall, Alex. Moffatt, ‘Neil Currie164 and John Haworth.

“When they all collected, in the morning of the ‘Raising,’ it was found that the whisky had been forgotten. Now, you must remember that a ‘raising’ without whisky is something entirely unknown in those days, so that not a timber could be touched until a messenger was sent over to Aylmer, or, as then called, ‘Syme’s Landing,’ for a good of supply. When it came the work began, and by night was all ready for the finishing touches, with every log in place.

“Mrs. Alex Moffatt [Isabella Pink] furnished the dinner and supper for the raisers. The supper was accounted especially good. It consisted of a great platter of pancakes and bowls of maple syrup.

The question came up as to the name for the building. Various names were suggested, but when John Haworth proposed ‘The Tabernacle,’ it was at once agreed upon, and ‘The Tabernacle’ it has been ever since.”165

Alexander Pink was recognized as “the most noted rifleman in the Valley”.166 He won many awards for his marksmanship, and was a member of the Bisley team that competed at Wimbledon.167 It has been written that “[t]here is … a story that Alexander’s passion for guns was rooted in a fear of the possibility of Fenian raids,” and that “as a child he roamed the grounds looking for gun shells.”168 Alexander Pink was also a military man. He began as a member of the 43rd Regiment at Wakefield then transferred to the No. 2 Company at Hull, where he occupied the rank of armorer sergeant.169

Alexander Pink appears to have been a person of strong, independent views. Contrary to the prevailing sentiment of the time, which was highly religious, he identified as “agnostic” in the 1901 census. Ten years later, in the 1911 census, he went further, identifying himself as having “No religion”.

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Alexander Pink (pictured right) and Isabelle Link lived in what is now called “Maison Pink”. It was built between 1872 and 1873 by Alexander and Robert Pink, as well as their brother Charles. Alexander and Isabelle’s twins, Jennie Maud and Thomas, were born in the house, and Thomas took on his father’s role as farmer, raising cattle and chickens on the 170 acre farm, which, for close to 100 years, included a barn, stables, a henhouse, an icehouse and a dairy. After Thomas died in 1966 (Emily having predeceased him by five years), the house was sold by his nieces and nephews. The property today is substantially reduced in size, parts of it having been expropriated in 1964 to construct Highway 5,170 however the house was restored and still stands today, at 5, rue du Granite, Gatineau, Quebec.171 A detailed description of the house and its history can be found in Christopher Carr’s 1992 article, “Pink House”.172

Alexander Pink died in Hull on January 1, 1913, at the age of 80. On October 12, 1916, Isabelle crossed into the United States at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan on her way to Escabana, Delta County, Michigan, where she would live with her daughter, Margaret, until Margaret’s death on June 13, 1917. Isabelle returned to the family home in Hull, and died there on April 12, 1926, at the age of 76.

12. Charles Pink173,174 and Sam Pink175,176

As previously noted, Charles and Samuel Pink were the names of two brothers who first arrived in Canada, with their brother James, and others, in 1822. James stayed in Canada, while Charles and Samuel returned to Ireland, where they married and began families and eventually returned to Canada to make their lives here. As Charles died in 1848 and Samuel died in 1854, however, the Charles and Sam Pink referenced on the 1875 Valuation Roll map must be of a different generation.

Based on census records, Charles and Sam Pink refer to Charles S Pink (1829-1908) and Samuel Pink (1826-1915). All other Charles and Samuel Pinks in the District of Ottawa during this period had either died by 1875 or were too young to be property owners. In contrast, both Charles and Samuel were living in the district, of an appropriate age and living close to persons (including one another and Charles’ brother, Alexander Pink, discussed above) with names appearing on the 1875 Valuation Roll map, all of which pointing to them being the property owners identified on the map.

Charles S Pink was the eldest son, and second child, of Samuel Pink (1795-1854) and Mary Elliott (1801- 1891), and the brother of Alexander Pink (1832-1913). As noted previously, his father first arrived in Canada in 1822 but returned to Ireland for Mary Elliott (1801-1891), who was “the girl he left behind”. Samuel and Mary had three children, including Charles, before returning to Canada in 1831. Charles married Elizabeth Strachan (1845-1915) on April 17, 1886. They were still living in Hull at the time of the 1891 Canada census, but by 1901 they have moved to Mather, Manitoba, where Charles died on December 22, 1908. Elizabeth stayed in Mather, and died there on October 8, 1915. They are buried in Mather Cemetery, in Mather Manitoba.

Samuel Pink was the eldest son of Charles (Charlie) Pink Jr. (1798-1868) and Catherine McGechan.177 He and Charles S Pink would have been close, not only because they were cousins but also based on their fathers’ shared history of coming to Canada in 1822, returning shortly after to Ireland, then coming back to Canada (several years later) with their wives and family (Samuel in 1831, and Charles in 1830178).

Samuel married Elizabeth (Eliza) Hewitt (1837-1922), and they spent their entire life in the region. Samuel and Eliza had seven children together. One of their children, son William Pink (1859-1920), was tragically killed in an accident involving an electric street car in Hull that was “driven by Motorman John Radmore, his brother-in-law.”179 Two other sons, Henry and George, died nine days apart in 1930. The death of George, who was a former president of the Central Canada Exhibition, was front page news in Ottawa (see below), and his obituary described him as “of a pioneer family which settled in this country away back in 1822, and … the son of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Pink, farmers, in South Hull, where he was born, and where six generations of the family are sleeping in the cemetery [Pink Cemetery] which bears their name.”180

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Appendix A
William Larmour
(By Gwen Leslie181)

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Appendix B
Margaret Pink

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Appendix C
First Generation of Pinks’ Recorded
Daniel Pink Married Jane McKinsey
Extract from A Gard’s Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “Genealogy of the Valley”, at 52

First Generation of Pinks’ Recorded – Daniel Pink Married Jane McKinsey:

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Extract from Anson Gard’s Pioneers of the Upper Valley, “Genealogy of the Valley”, at 52:

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Appendix D
Charles Pink Sr.

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Appendix E
Carrie McLinton – Mabel Ferris Correspondence

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Appendix F
Children of Pioneer Alex Moffatt and Isabella Pink
Account of Timothy Moffatt

Children of Pioneer Alex Moffatt and Isabella Pink:

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Account of Timothy Moffatt:

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Appendix G
Wakefield Satellite Image182
Farms of John (1832-), William (1832-) and Thomas Maxwell (1846-)183

Farmers connections to the Maxwells

Appendix H
Jane Moffatt and Thomas Link

Farmers connections to the Maxwells


1 While I have attempted to verify and source the information in this document, some facts, e.g. (some) places and dates of birth and death, have been sourced from family trees on Ancestry.ca and have not been (successfully) confirmed by other sources. Where this is the case, I have used information that is consistent with other information and from sources that I believe to be credible. Any errors, however, are my responsibility alone. If you have comments, questions or corrections, please feel free to contact me at djbip1986@yahoo.com.
2 Letters (S, SE, SW, N, NE, NW) are used to denote parts of a lot. Such designations are based on a visual assessment of the 1875 Valuation Roll map, and therefore are approximate.
3 I have identified the relationship between me and each of the individuals referred to in this document. This relationship will be the same for other persons who are a grandchild of Emma Agnes Maxwell (1904-1982) and Robert George (George) Brown (1896-1969).
4 Lot 19, Range XVI. Francis Larmour also appears, along with Isaac Cross, Michael Hogan and D Moore as an owner of Lot 20S, Range XV, which is also indicated as being the location of a mill. It is possible, though I have not been able to confirm, that Francis had an interest in a mill located on this property.
5 William Larmour and Margaret Pink were my 3rd great grandfather and grandmother, respectively. Their son, Francis, was my 3rd great uncle.
6 See Appendix A. See also Anson A Gard, Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa & Humors of the Valley (Ottawa: The Emerson Press, 1906) (“Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa”), “South Hull”, at 78. A digital copy of Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa is available for free at www.archives.org. William and Margaret’s son, Francis, received a land grant for the south half of this lot on April 1, 1863. See List of Lands Granted by the Crown in the Province of Quebec from 1763 to 31st December 1890 (“Quebec Land Grants 1763-1890”) (Quebec: Charles-Francois Langlois, 1891), at 731.
7 The 1851 Canada East census indicates William’s age to be 76.
8 Ibid. See also the handwritten story (author unknown) in Appendix A.
9 Note however that the 1851 Canada East census identifies her age at that time as 51, which would make her birth year about 1801.
10 Located at 1521 Chemin Vanier, Gatineau, Quebec.
11 See Appendices B-F.
12 See footnote 6.
13 James died in the “Great Fire of 1870”, which occurred during a hot, drought-ridden summer and had “widely separate sources in the townships of Fitzroy, Huntley, Gloucester, Nepean and in the Hull area across the river.” See Harry and Olive Walker, Carleton Saga (Ottawa: Carleton County Council, 1968) (“Carleton Saga”), at 225-235, for an historical account of the fire. Regarding James’ death in the fire, see Appendix C.
14 An account of the trip is included in a document entitled “Grandmother Link’s Story” contained in Appendix H and reproduced in Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “Genealogy of the Valley”, at 42-43. See also an account of Timothy Moffatt, in Appendix F, and Bruce Elliott, “The Pink and Moffatt Families of Hull, 1822-1838”, Up the Gatineau!, Vol 1, 1975, at 7–9.
15 Samuel appears to have been the romantic of the family, as he went back for “the girl he left behind”.
16 See Appendix D. When he was young, Charles Pink Sr. had worked for a Captain James Currie and married his youngest daughter, Isabella. He is said to have worked as a coachman for Captain Currie and eloped with Isabella. See Appendix B.
17 See Appendix E.
18 Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “Genealogy of the Valley”, at 78.
19 Ibid
20 Ibid
21 While West Hull was separate from Wakefield, family tree records typically identify places of death and birth for Larmour family members who were born and died on the farm as “Wakefield” (the southern border of which was just north of the family’s farm).
22 This is not the same Thomas Maxwell who appears on the 1875 Valuation Roll. Agnes Larmour (1834-1921) married Thomas “Red Tom” Maxwell (1835-1900), who was the son of William Burnette Maxwell (1808-1857) and Jane McMillan (1801-1892). His namesake on the 1875 Valuation Roll is Thomas Maxwell (1829-1920), who was the son of William Burnette Maxwell’s brother, Thomas William Maxwell (1792-1869), and his wife Catherine McVeigh (1803-1877).
23 See The Maxwell Homestead Story (https://1drv.ms/b/s!Aqx7JeJ7Eg38g_JNYaRwm1ATiGuShQ). Note that some family trees have her born in Masham, Quebec. Given the farm is frequently referred to as being in “Wakefield” and that William Larmour was supposedly acquired the land in West Hull upon their arrival in 1830, it seems more likely she was born on the farm in West Hull.
24The following poem is reproduced under the name of Margaret Pink in a cerlox-bound family tree compilation prepared in 1997 by my uncle, Ronald George Brown, for my father, Alan Richard Brown:

The hour of my departures come
I hear the voice that calls me home
At last O’Lord let trouble cease
And let thy servant die in peace
The race appointed I have run
The combat o’r the price is won
And now my witness is on high
And now my record is in the sky
Not in mine innocence I trust
I bow before Thee in the dust
And through my Saviour’s blood alone
I look for mercy at Thy throne
I leave the world without a tear
Save for the friends I held so dear
To heal their sorrows Lord descend
And to the friendless prove a friend
I come, I come, at Thy command
I give my spirit to thy hand
Stretch forth Thine everlasting arms
And shield me in the last alarms
The poem is a Scottish Psalm, suggesting that Margaret Pink was a religious person and that she and/or her loved ones would have taken comfort in its text at the time of her death.
25 A third daughter, Isabella, is said to have died in 1860 at the age of 7. Catherine does not appear in the 1861 census, but she is identified in the 1871 census as being born in about 1859.
26 See “5. James Reid”, below.
27 It remains to be determined what happened to Francis’ children, except that James married a woman named Marion Mary (Mary), and they stayed in Manitoba until 1940, when they moved to Vancouver, where they lived the remainder of their lives.
28 Lot 18S, Range XIV; Lots 16S and 17S, Range XIII; and Lot 16N, Range. The latter of these properties includes a reference to “John”. I do not address this question of John’s identity in detail, but I note that Thomas’s father was also named Thomas (not John), and Thomas did not have any sons named John. It could refer to Thomas’ uncle William John (John) Maxwell (1836-1915), who, as discussed below under “5. James Reid”, married in Wakefield, Quebec in 1874 then moved to British Columbia.
29 Thomas Maxwell was my 1st cousin 4x removed.
30 He travelled between Wakefield and British Columbia for several years, working in BC lumber camps. He sent for Agnes, but she did not want to leave her home in Wakefield. Red Tom died in Clinton, British Columbia of pneumonia in 1900.
31 To distinguish these two Thomas Maxwells, I refer to them as Red Tom and Thomas Maxwell, respectively.
32 Wakefield—where Thomas “Red Tom” Maxwell and Agnes Pink Larmour were living—was designated as District 93, Sub-district F.
33 See Alexa J. Pritchard and Mary Gail Wilson, Anselm Maxwell & his Celtic Connections 1822 (Ottawa: Intrepid Communications, 2001) (“Celtic Connections”).
34 See Celtic Connections, at 27, where it is noted that Hance’s birth year was recorded as 1801 in a family bible and that his brother John’s birth year was also 1801, based on the 1871 and 1891 Canada censuses. It is possible they were twins or born in the same calendar year, but another possibility is that John’s birth year based on the censuses is incorrect.
35 Hance Maxwell is recorded as “Haunce” Maxwell in the 1825 Lower Canada census, living in the Hull Sub-district of what was then called the District of York (later renamed the District of Ottawa). He may have arrived in July 1822, as a St. Lawrence Steamboat Co. passenger list shows an “A Maxwell” (recall Hance’s full name was Anselm Hance Maxwell) travelling from Quebec to Montreal on the New Swiftsure on July 12, 1822 (see https://www.theshipslist.com/ships/passengerlists/1819_20index.shtml). While this corresponds to the approximate time of his arrival in Canada, the 1825 Lower Canada census includes three Maxwells, one of whom was an “Alex Maxwell” living in Montreal who could also be the “A Maxwell” identified on the passenger list.
36 According to Celtic Connections, at 283, John Maxwell arrived in Canada 1830, and the “Wright Papers” (of Hull’s founder, Philemon Wright) include an 1829 letter from Hance requesting land for this brother John. Interestingly, a John Maxwell is listed as having received a land grant on September 1, 1827 (see Quebec Land Grants 1763-1890), which suggests that either John arrived in Canada earlier than believed (in which case, one might ask why Hance would have written to Philemon Wright on John’s behalf) or there was another John Maxwell living in the area at the time. See The Two Chelseas, at 81, stating that the Letters Patent for the property where the O’Neil House, which was “built between 1850 and 1860 by Paddy O’Neil as a stage stop between Ottawa and North Wakefield (Alcove)”, were “recorded in the name of John Maxwell, September 21, 1827.” See also at Ref page 82, showing the location of the property on the west side of Highway 11/105, just south of Church Road. I believe the original owner of this property was likely another John Maxwell who subsequently left the area, as I can find no evidence of or reference to this “other” John Maxwell in the 1825 or 1831 Lower Canada censuses, or in the 1842 Canada East census.
37 According to Mary Gail Wilson, co- author of Celtic Connections.
38 Norma Geggie, Wakefield and Its People: Tours of the Village (Quyon, QC: Chesley House Publications, 1990), at 3 (“Wakefield and Its People”). According to Mary Gail Wilson, the Maxwell brothers rented their farms in Chelsea from Philemon Wright, who was not the most accommodating of landlords, which may explain, at least in part, their moves to Low and Wakefield. See, for example, Celtic Connections, at 23, which reproduces a standard lease used by the Wrights. Among the terms of such leases were that “should [the tenant] by death or otherwise depart” from the premises, the landlord (Wright) “is hereby authorized to runter (enter?) and take possession of the aforesaid premises, at the same time reserving to himself the right of legal recourse in an action against the [tenant] … in damages for the non fulfillment of this lease.” Based on the terms of the lease, the premises would have included a “sided timber” dwelling built by the tenant. The move, which took them north and therefore further from Ottawa, may also have been motivated by a desire to minimize the risk of exposure to smallpox, which was common in Ottawa at the time.
39 If one compares to a satellite image (see Appendix G) of this area today, the location of John and William Burnette’s farms is very close to the present day Morrison (Maxwell) Mine (and thus the farm of William Burnette’s grandson, Fred Maxwell), which is discussed below (see “4. Wm. Maxwell”).
40 This is explained in greater detail below; see also Wakefield and Its People, at 4.
41 Since all of Thomas William Maxwell and Catherine McVeigh’s children were born in Ireland, they arrived in Canada after 1839, when the last of their children was born. We also know that they were living in Canada by the time of the 1851 census. To determine the year they arrived, I turned to the 1901 census, which includes the year that persons not born in Canada arrived in Canada. While Thomas William Maxwell and Catherine McVeigh died before 1901, some of their children were alive, including Thomas Maxwell. The year of Thomas Maxwell’s arrival in the 1901 census is illegible, but the census indicates that his brother, William T S Maxwell, arrived in 1846.
42 These locations are shown on the map above, as well as the approximate location where William’s son, Red Tom, would later establish the “Maxwell Homestead” on what is now called Chemin Maxwell.
43 The 1861 census also shows Thomas and Mary living near other families whose names appear on the 1875 Valuation Roll (e.g., Hogan, Cassidy and—on the other side of the river—Nesbitt), which suggests they were most likely living at that time on the property indicated on the 1875 Valuation Roll.
44 Her place of birth is identified as Quebec in the 1861, 1891 and 1901 censuses, as well as on the death certificate of their daughter Jane (all accessed through www.ancestry.ca). The 1871 census identifies her as having been born in Ireland, but this is likely an error.
45 There is no reference to a family called “Milne” in the 1825 Lower Canada census. There is also no reference to the family living in the District of Ottawa in the 1842 or 1851 Canada East censuses. As census records at the time were often incomplete or incorrect, I did a wider search of the 1842 and 1851 census and found that David Milne and his family were incorrectly recorded under the name “Mills”.
46 County of Carleton Marriage Register (accessed via www.ancestry.ca).
47 The marriage registration of their first-born child, Jane, identifies her place of birth as Kirk’s Ferry Quebec.
48 Lot 17S, Range XIV; Lot 17N, Range XIII; Lot 15, Range XIII.
49 David Milne was the father-in-law of my 1st cousin 4x removed: his daughter, Mary Jane, married Thomas Maxwell (1829-1920), who was my 1st cousin 4x removed.
50 Canadian census records (1861, 1871) identify his country of birth as Scotland.
51 See the Canadian censuses of 1861 and 1871.
52 See the 1842 and 1851 censuses of Canada East.
53 A “David Milne & Wife” travelled from Quebec City to Montreal on the Lady Sherbrooke on August 23, 1826. It is possible that this was David Milne and Jane Hadley (i.e., having arrived in Quebec City and making their way to their new home in Hull Township), but it may also have been a David Milne that was recorded in the 1842 and 1851 Canada East censuses as living in the Beauharnois District, which is on the south shore west of Montreal.
54 Lot 27N, Range XVI.
55 William “Hip Billy” Maxwell was the son of my third great grandfather, William Burnette Maxwell, and therefore my 1st cousin 4x removed.
56 According to Pritchard and Wilson, “Peg Leg Billy lost a leg in an accident. Also known as Hep [sic] Billy.” Celtic Connections, at 285.
57 William was a common name among Maxwells of this era, but most William Maxwells living in the area at the time can be readily excluded as potential owners of this property. In addition to Hip Billy, the 1871 Canada census identifies the following William Maxwells in the District of Ottawa: 44-year old William Maxwell was the son of Hance Maxwell, who lived in Denholm (not West Hull); 40-year old William Maxwell, who lived in Aylmer (not West Hull); and 14-year old William Maxwell, the son of James Hance Maxwell and Sarah Wright, who was too young to have been the owner of the property in 1875.
58 Hip Billy’s year of birth, based on the Canada censuses for 1851-1891 is identified as 1832 (once, in 1851), 1834 (three times, in 1861, 1881 and 1891) and 1835 (once, in 1871).
59 John was the brother of Jane’s first husband, William Burnette Maxwell, and therefore Hip Billy’s uncle. As noted above (see “2. Thos. Maxwell and Thos. Maxwell (John)”), John and William Burnette were the two brothers who initially joined their brother Hance in Chelsea, and then, in 1832, “crossed the Meech” to settle in Wakefield. The two brothers settled on the west side of the Gatineau River, south of the town of Wakefield. While the distance to the town appears small on the maps shown above, the actual distance is farther than it appears (about 3-4 km). John’s wife, Mary Ann Quinn, died in 1852, and William died in 1857, leaving both John and Jane as widows. Given that they were immediate neighbours, and the distance into town, it is not surprising—based on customs of the time—that John and Jane would marry, in 1857, shortly after William’s death.
60 As noted below (see “8. Robert James Reid and William Carman”), Martha married William C Carman, who died in 1861, leaving her widowed and with two children.
61 Celtic Connections, at 285.
62 Howard Caves died of a gunshot that was found to have been accidentally self inflicted. The Ottawa Citizen reported his death as follows: Coroner Lyster, of Hull, returned last evening from Farm Point, Que., where he conducted an investigation into the death of the late Mr. Howard Caves, who was discovered with a bullet wound in the forehead, lying in the field near his home on Thursday evening. After hearing the testimony of Mr. James and Miss Gladys Caves, brother and sister of the deceased, who discovered the body, Coroner Lyster decided that death had resulted accidentally and that no inquest would be necessary. When found the body was lying face downwards, with the gun underneath it, and it is surmised that the deceased must have stumbled in some manner, and the gun exploded, shooting him through the forehead. The late Mr. Caves was very well-known and popular in Wakefield district, where his tragic death has caused widespread sorrow. “Cave’s Death Accidental: Farm Point Man’s Body Found in Field”, The Ottawa Citizen, 26 September 1914.
63 Elizabeth and Levi were second cousins. Elizabeth’s grandfather was William Burnette Maxwell, who was the sister of Levi’s grandmother, Ann Maxwell (who, as noted previously, was married to James R Reid).
64 Their son, James Allan Reid (1923-1944), was killed in action during the liberation of Europe on September 7, 1944. He was a gunner in the Royal Canadian Artillery, 23 Field Regiment, of the Canadian Army. On the day he died, James was riding in a group of motorcycles heading north from France to Belgium. While passing through a village, he was fatally shot by a sniper. James is officially recorded as having been killed in France, but he may have been killed in Belgium, where he is buried at the Adegem Canadian War Cemetery. Grave Reference VII. G. 7. See also: https://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/memorials/overseas/second-world-war/belgium/adegem.
65 In Celtic Connections, at 285, Pritchard and Wilson refer to “William F Maxwell b 1891 m Sarah Grimes” and “Fred Maxwell b Mar 27, 1891 m Aleda Grimes b 1891 d 1982.” These are in fact the same persons: William F Maxwell refers to Fred Maxwell, who married Sarah Aleda (Aleda) Grimes. 66 As noted previously, Fred Maxwell’s farm may have been located on the same property previously farmed by his grandfather, William Burnette Maxwell, and/or his great uncle, John (Jack) Maxwell. Who owned these farms after the death of John Maxwell in 1877 is an open question.
67 As Thomas was born in Farm Point and died in Alcove, he likely spent most of his life near Wakefield. However, like many Canadian men of the 1920s, he went to the United States (Detroit) in January 1926. His U.S. immigration record identified his occupation as a carpenter, stated he was going to join a J. Taggart and described Thomas more than 6’2”, with red hair and brown eyes.
68 This photo, taken from the GVHS’ Image Bank (https://gvhs.ca/image-bank/ibdisplay. php?search=farm%20point&row=90&kind=like; accessed on July 21, 2020), shows Aleda Grimes in 1950 in front of her and Fred Maxwell’s house, which was located in front of the Alcan plant.
69 Alcan also operated the nearby Stephen Cross quarry (see https://www.mindat.org/loc-15858.html). According to an account in John E Udd’s, The Mines of Ottawa (1999), the deposits for the “Morrison (Maxwell) Mine” were discovered in 1938 on the property of “S.C. Cross”, and not on the property of Fred Maxwell:
Morrison (Maxwell) Mine, Lot 26A, 16th Range, Hull Township, Gatineau County, Québec. About 6 km north of Farm Point, and 35 km north of Ottawa. The Wakefield brucite deposits were discovered in 1938 by Mr. M.F. Goudge of the Canadian Mines Branch, who … identified a sample from the property of Mr. S.L. [sic] Cross. The mine was developed in 1941 by the Aluminum Company of Canada, which operated it as an open pit from 1942 to 1968. The pit was idle in 1962 (1963). A concentration plant, the Wakefield concentrator, on the property was opened in 1942 (1943), and the magnesia sold to Canadian Refractories, at Kilmar, for the manufacture of refractory brick. Lime was also produced …. The property was owned later by Mervin Morrison, of Wakefield (?). …
As there were brucite deposits on both the Maxwell and Cross properties, the above can be reconciled with the 1940 discovery of brucite on the Maxwell farm, with the plant located there to support both quarries.
70 Lot 17N, Range XIV; Lot 17S, Range XV; Lot 15N, Range XV.
71 James R Reid was the husband of my 4th great aunt, Ann Maxwell, who was the sister of Thomas William Maxwell and William Burnette Maxwell (all of whom were the children of Anselm Maxwell and Sarah Wells).
72 Much of the information about James R Reid and his family is taken from an unpublished report entitled “Descendants of Thomas MAXWELL” prepared for Douglas Fish by the Ulster Historical Foundation in 2010 (the “Ulster Heritage Foundation Report”).
73 “Healthy Gatineau,” The Ottawa Evening Citizen, 13 August 1895. The Ulster Heritage Foundation Report also states that James, along with his wife and their first child, Jane, arrived in Canada in 1832, along with 100 other members of the Reid and Maxwell families (which may have included William Burnette Maxwell, who also arrived about that same time, although it is unclear whether these “100 members of the Reid and Maxwell families” travelled together or simply arrived in Canada around the same time). In addition to Jane, James and Ann travelled to Canada with a second child, their first-born James, who died during the 14-day passage of the Atlantic. See the James R Family Tree, available at https://www.gvhs.ca/TextBank/00044-009.jpg (accessed on May 28, 2020).
74 This photo shows the Reid Farm in about 1940 (reproduced from the Image Bank of the Gatineau Valley Historical Society’s (“GVHS”)): https://www.gvhs.ca/image-bank/ibdisplay. php?search=Reid%20Farm&row=1&kind=like (accessed on June 3, 2020). The (James) Reid farm differs from the “Reid Farm” at Kirk’s Ferry, which became later known as Brown’s Farm. The Kirk’s Ferry farm was owned by Thomas Reid (unrelated) and his wife, Lucy Wright; passed to their youngest son, Norman, then, upon his death, in 1889, to their daughter Maud and her husband Ferguson Brown of Cantley; and eventually to Maud and Ferguson’s nephew, Arthur Brown, leading to it becoming known as the Brown Farm. See Carol Martin, “Brown’s Farm”, Up the Gatineau!, Vol 20, 1994, 22-29. See also The Two Chelseas, at 147 and 89.
75 See Quebec Land Grants 1763-1890, at 735.
76 The 1825 and 1831 Lower Canada censuses, for example, contain no Thomas Reids in the District of Ottawa.
77 Ulster Heritage Foundation Report. No date is provided for their marriage, but as Ann Maxwell was born in 1809 and their first child was born in 1831, they most likely married in the late 1820s or in 1830.
78 As noted previously, James and Ann lost their first-born child, James, during the 14-week voyage to Canada.
79 “Healthy Gatineau”, The Ottawa Journal, 13 August 1895, at 5.
80 J.L. Gourlay, A.M., History of the Ottawa Valley (1896), available online at https://openlibrary.org/books/OL6322359M/History_of_the_Ottawa_valley.
81 Ibid, at 193. Gourlay also wrote of James Reid (just prior to his death): “Mr. James Reid now resides at the Cascades and one of his sons keeps store there, another is on the old homestead.” For reasons described below, the latter references would appear to be to his sons John (who lived all but two years of his life in the house where he was born) and Thomas (whose occupation was merchant). Ibid.
82 He was elected as a Liberal-Conservative (a predecessor to today’s Conservative Party) in 1881, 1882 and 1887, and he was appointed to the Senate by Canada’s first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, on October 8, 1888, where he served until his death on May 3, 1904. As he was appointed Senator prior to the death of his mother, Ann Maxwell, is it possible that she might have met Sir John A.?
83 Accessed at https://archive.org/details/cihm_32955/page/n417/mode/2up/search/reid on May 14, 2020.
84 William John (John) Maxwell was the son of Ann Maxwell’s brother, Thomas William Maxwell, and his wife Catherine McVeigh. He was also the brother of Thomas Maxwell. While the above article states that John was born in 1838, he may have been born earlier (in 1836).
85 Taken from “The Children of Langley” website (www.fortlangley.ca). See in particular http://www.fortlangley.ca/langley/3amuni.html (accessed on May 14, 2020).
86 Lot 21N, Lot XV
87 John Reid was my 1st cousin 4x removed.
88 In another unpublished report prepared for Douglas Fish by the Ulster Heritage Foundation, John’s date of birth (in Ireland) was identified as 1770. See the Reid Ancestral Report (undated).
89 Jane Reid’s maiden name was Graham.
90 See the Ulster Heritage Foundation Report, at 1.
91 Canada census, 1901.
92 Killed overseas in World War I. The 1901 census states that he was born in 1884, but his Attestation Paper for the Canadian Overseas Expeditionary Force says he was born in 1894. 93 See GVHS’ “Text Bank” at https://www.gvhs.ca/TextBank/00044-009.jpg (accessed on May 14, 2020).
94 Alice is buried in Wakefield, at Hall’s Cemetery.
95 Lot 18N, Range XIV. He also owned 10 acres of Lot 20S, Range XIV.
96 Thomas Maxwell Reid was my 1st cousin 4x removed.
97 The 1871 census does not show a Thomas Read in the District of Ottawa. The 1881 census shows a Thomas Read in Hull, but he was 24 years old and living in a household headed by his parents, William and Margaret. The 1871 and 1881 censuses similarly show only one Thomas Reid in the District of Ottawa of the same (or approximate) age of Thomas.
98 The 1881 census records them as Thomas and Marion Reid, aged 33 and 31, with children Walter Russell (Russell), Malcolm and Lilian, aged 3, 2 and 5, respectively. Thomas’s occupation is identified as “Millwright”.
99 Thomas’ marriage to Marion could have been his second marriage, but their marriage registration identifies his status as “B”, for bachelor.
100 Obituary “Mr. T.M. Reid”, The Ottawa Journal,30 October 1899, at 5.
101 Ibid.
102 Index of death notices, obituaries, In Memoriams and estate notices published in the Fort William Daily Times-Journal 1900 – 1972: http://www.tbpl.ca/upload/documents/fwdtj-death-index-1900-1972.pdf (accessed on June 3, 2020).
103 Lot 22N, Range XVI.
104 Robert James Reid was my 1st cousin 4x removed.
105 Lots 23N and 24N, Range XVI.
106 William Carman was the father-in-law of my 3rd great aunt, Martha Maxwell (1829-?). 107 In addition to the Elizabeth Carman who married Robert Reid, there was another Elizabeth Carman (1852-1906) who married John Maxwell. See footnote 84.
108 See GVHS’ “Text Bank” at https://www.gvhs.ca/TextBank/00044-009.jpg (accessed on May 14, 2020).
109 This is consistent with Robert’s obituary, which states that he lived in the same house where he was born for 78 years, before spending the last two years of his life in Ottawa. “Mr. Robert Reid Dies in His 80th Year”, The Ottawa Citizen, 24 September 1923, at 5.
110 It is also close to properties owned by Louis Carman (Lot 28S, Range XVI) and Simeon Carman (Lot 27S, Range XVI), which could refer to sons of William Carman Sr. (who is discussed in greater detail below).
111 I have not confirmed that William Carman Sr. was born in Iroquois, which is located south of Ottawa on the St. Lawrence River. However, his having been born there is supported by the presence (documented in Canadian census records) of other Carmans in the area during this period, including his nephew, William Carman, son of Lewis, who lived (and married) in Iroquois in 1873. Moreover, a death registration suggests that William Carman Sr. died in Frontenac County, near Kingston, which is about 130 km east of Iroquois.
112 Lot 14N, Range VIII; Lot 12SW, Range VIII.
113 Thomas Link was the husband of my 1st cousin 4x removed, Jane Moffatt. As noted below, Jane Moffatt was a daughter of Alexander Moffatt and Isabelle Pink, who arrived in Canada from Belfast in 1822.
114 See Catherine Joyce and Frances Curry, “Summers in Tenaga: Big Enough for July, But Not for August”, Up the Gatineau!, Vol. 42:2016, at 21n2.
115 See The Two Chelseas, at 40:
This two-storey brick farmhouse [known as the Link-Hendrick Farm] with its out-buildings is situated on the south side of the Chelsea Road and west of Autoroute 5, not far from the Bell Telephone switching station. The farm initially belonged to George Link and his wife. George Link is believed to be the son of Francis Link (1791-1853) a native of Herefordshire, England. George rented the farm to a Mr. Hopper for a period of 15 years prior to selling it to John (Jack) Hendrick about 1905. This would indicate that the construction of the house some time before 1890.
Jack, Mick and Martin Hendrick three brothers born on a farm on the west side of the Meech Creek Valley. Jack Hendrick lived on Pine Road before purchasing the Link farm. A year later Martin Hendrick bought the farm of Thomas Link, brother of George Link. This farm was also situated on the Chelsea Road, nearer the Gatineau River and east of Autoroute 5 [formerly Highway 11]. Between the two farms owned by the brothers Hendrick was a small nine-acre farm owned by a Mr. Scanlon, this farm was eventually sold to Jack Hendrick.
116 Information about Francis Link and his family in this paragraph is from Pioneers of the Upper Valley, “Genealogy of the Valley”, at 77-78. See also The Two Chelseas, at 143-144.
117 Certificate of marriage.
118 Nicholas served as the Chelsea postmaster from 1854 to 1863. See The Two Chelseas, at 147.
119 Anna and John Hudson were sister and brother. See The Two Chelseas, at 144.
120 The closeness of these families was noted by Pat Evans, who observed that “[t]here were a number of marriages between the Pinks, Links and Moffatts.” The Two Chelseas, at 144.
121 See Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “Genealogy of the Valley”, at 42. See also Appendix H.
122 See Appendix F. Timothy also appears on the 1875 Valuation Roll map as the owner of Lot 17, Range VI.
123 Susannah’s parents Henry Hurdman and Elizabeth Maxwell (1787-1875), who came originally from County Cavan, Ireland, were pioneer settlers of Eardley, Quebec. When they came to Canada (via the United States) in 1816, they settled on Klock Road between Cook and Pink Roads (Lots 20, 21 and 27, Range 5 of Hull Township). Henry may have been related to the family of Charles Hurdman, who arrived in Canada (also from Country Cavan in Ireland) as part of the Philemon Wright colony and whose sons became prominent members of the Ottawa business community, with ventures in lumber and later in agriculture. See Carleton Saga, at 195-198. See also “The William Herdman & Mary Moffatt house, built about 1864”, www.heritagepontiac.ca/1583/Farmhouse.html (accessed on June 25, 2020).
124 William Maxwell Hurdman was the brother of Timothy Moffatt’s wife, Susannah. As such, Timothy and Mary, who were brother and sister, each married a sibling of the other’s spouse.
125 Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “Genealogy of the Valley”, at 43 and 78. Remarkably, James’ mother and wife shared the same maiden married names, i.e. Isabella Pink and Isabella Moffatt, respectively. James’ wife was the youngest daughter of Samuel Pink (1795-1854) and Mary Elliott (1801-1891) and his mother was Samuel’s sister, which made James and Isabella first cousins.
126 In Pioneers of the Upper Valley, his name is spelled Robert “Bain”.
127 Robert was the son of pioneer Emanuel Radmore, who arrived in Canada in 1826. According to Gard, Emanuel’s wife, who was also named Jane Moffatt, was the sister of Alexander Moffatt, which would have made her the aunt of Thomas Link’s wife, Jane Moffatt. See Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “Genealogy of the Valley”, at 54.
128 “Mrs. Robert Radmore”, The Ottawa Citizen, 6 November 1936, at 7. Mary Alice was Robert’s second wife. He was married previously to Jane Ferris. See also Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “Genealogy of the Valley”, at 54.
129 The farm was located to the north, across the road from, the farm of Samuel Pink, which at the time was owned by his son, Charles Pink (who is discussed below, in “12. Charles Pink and Sam Pink”). See Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “Genealogy of the Valley”, “South Hull” at 22.
In Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, Gard recorded, with a touch of humour matched by his subject’s apparent resilience in the face of adversity, Robert Radmore’s devastating experience in “the 1870 forest fire, in which he lost everything but a composite suit of clothes … Robert’s suit, in which he had to go to Ottawa for a new outfit, consisted of a top boot and a gollash for foot gear, a pair of riding breeches, his wedding coat and a coonskin cap, which outfit, for August weather he found quite as warm as it was picturesque. ‘But I was mighty glad I had as much,’ said Robert, reminiscently.” Ibid, “South Hull” at 22.

130 Theodore’s misfortunes are set out in “Theodore Nankin, Who Died in This City, Once a Man of Promise”, The Courier-News (Bridgewater, NJ), 19 January 1898, at 1. After starting his own stock farm in Dutchess County, New York (where he and Jemima lived at the time of her death), he did the same in Ohio for a millionaire investor, and then purchased a ranch in Texas. His fortunes turned for the worse, and he left Texas for Bridgewater, New Jersey. His health failed, and “he wasted away to a mere shadow of his former self,” with “[h]is wife … [as] the sole support of the family for a year by her needle,” with which she “fought the wolf away from the door for her husband and her two step children.”
131 See www.vitalstats.gov.mb.ca (accessed on June 25, 2020), which shows the death of “Thomasine Fulford” at the age of 39 on March 30, 1901.
132 It is not known whether George was related to Nicholas Sparks, who was one of the founders of Ottawa.
133 “Mrs. Thomas Link”, The Evening Journal (Ottawa), 28 January 1939, at 27.
134 See https://www.chelseapub.ca/en/history.html. Dunn’s Hotel was also owned by Hance Maxwell’s son James, and James’ wife Sarah Wright. See Celtic Connections, at 26, 54-60.
135 Province of Ontario – Certificate of Registration of Death.
136 Province of Ontario – Certificate of Registration of Death.
137 “Laid to Rest,” The Ottawa Citizen, 14 January 1902, at 17; see also The Evening Citizen (Ottawa), 10 January 1902, at 1.
138 “Death at Old Chelsea”, The Ottawa Citizen, 5 July 1909, at 3.
139 The Two Chelseas, at 144.
140 Lot 21N, Range VIII; Lot 16S, Range VI.
141 Hugh Pink was my 1st cousin 4x removed. He was a son of James Currie Pink and Agnes (Nancy) Elliott.
142 As noted below, Hugh Pink died between 1891 and 1901.
143 It is not known whether Nancy Elliott and Mary Elliott (Samuel Pink’s wife) were sisters, but as they were born one year apart and married brothers it is possible that they were.
144 An account of the trip is included in a document entitled “Grandmother Link’s Story” contained in Appendix H and reproduced in Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “Genealogy of the Valley”, at 42-43. See also Bruce Elliott, “The Pink and Moffatt Families of Hull, 1822-1838”, Up the Gatineau!, Vol 1 (1975), at 7–9.
145 1901 Census of Canada.
146 The whereabouts of their three children in 1901 remains to be determined.
147 The fact that she lived in Louise, Manitoba, suggests that the move of Thomasina Link and her husband John Fulford to Louise may have been connected to Annie’s presence (or the presence of other family members) there.
148 Lot 11NW, Range VII.
149 Lot 11NE, Range VII; Lot 12SE, Range VI. While the latter is attributed to “Alec” Pink, 1871 Canada census records do not include an Alec Pink in the District of Ottawa, suggesting it is in fact “Alex(ander)”.
150 Robert and Alexander Pink are my 1st cousins 4x removed.
151 Birth dates are indicated in the 1901 Canada census.
152 “Death of Robert Pink”, The Evening Journal (Ottawa), 30 October 1901, at 1.
153 Marriage registration, accessed through www.ancestry.ca on June 25, 2020
154 Death registration, accessed through www.ancestry.ca on June 25, 2020.
155 www.findagrave.com.
156 As James was a Catholic, Margaret converted to Catholicism so that her marriage to James could take place.
157 Marriage registration, accessed through www.ancestry.ca on June 25, 2020.
158 See The Ottawa Journal, “Ends life in bedroom with rifle”, 10 September 1913. According to the newspaper account, she left no “statement” but ill health may have been “Motive For Rash Action”. It went on to say that “[t]he shooting took place in her bedroom, and her aged mother and young cousin were the sole occupants of the house at the time,” and that “[a]fter hearing the report of the shot, the mother and cousin were afraid to enter the bedroom of Miss Pink, and it was only after the arrival of her brother that the door of her room was battered down and the body with a rifle lying beside was found.”
159 The 1911 census identified him, at the age of 31, as a labourer on the family farm. By 1921, he was married to Emily and they were living in South Hull, childless but with Thomas’ mother, Isabelle.
160 Whereas the Wakefield Maxwells came from County Down Ireland, the South Hull Maxwells came from County Cavan. I have seen no evidence that the two families were related, and Gard states that there is no relationship between them (see Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “South Hull”, at 79). That said, there is insufficient information to rule out a relationship between the two families.
161 Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “South Hull”, at 40-41.
162 Ibid, at 40.
163 Jane remembered one of the early teachers, David Turner, like this: “He was … an Englishman who came out very early, bringing with him his fancy knee pants and buckle shoes. It looked odd to see so much style in the country of homespun clothed people.” Ibid.
164 Neil Currie (1793-1864) was an early pioneer of the area (arriving in Hull in 1828) and was married to Florence (Flora) Currie. Their son John (1832-1907) married Isabelle Pink (1835-1893), whose parents were Charles Pink (1798-1868) and Catherine McGechan (1800-1870). John was known as “Captain John Currie”, and he was “one of the most prominent men of the Municipality,” for reasons explained by Gard:
In his early days he was a steamboat captain on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence, being for years with the famous old M. K. Dickinson. He followed the rivers for sixteen years. He helped build the great Victoria Bridge in Montreal. He was in the Town Council for six years before South Hull Municipality was formed, and for fifteen years he has been [as of 1906] a member of the South Hull Council, without a break. His home, on the Mountain Road, is one of the prettiest in the Municipality. To his marvellous memory, I am indebted for the dates of the coming of early pioneers. Without a note or a reference he sat and gave dates as though reading them from a book, and so accurate that I have found almost no discrepancies. Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “Genealogy of the Valley”, at 16.
165 Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “South Hull”, at 41. The story of the raising is also re-told by Bruce Elliott, “The Pink and Moffatt Families of Hull, 1822-1838”, Up the Gatineau! Vol. 1 (1975), at 8:
Just as James Pink [in the summer of 1823] had helped build St. James Church [the first church building in the area], so the Moffatts realized the need for a school-house closer to their farms than Wright’s Village. So in 1830 their friends and neighbours gathered up on the Mountain Road and prepared to conduct a “school-raising”. However, when it was noted that no one had brought along any whiskey, the entire company sat down and waited until a good load had been brought from Symme’s Landing, now Aylmer. Once the whiskey had arrived, work proceeded rapidly and by nightfall the log structure was completed. ...
166 Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “Genealogy of the Valley”, at 52.
167 Ibid. See also Christopher Carr, “Pink House”, Up the Gatineau! Vol. 19 (1992), at 18 and “Veteran Passes Away”, The Ottawa Citizen, 3 January 1913, at 1.
168 Christopher Carr, “Pink House”, Up the Gatineau! Vol. 19 (1992), at 18.
169 “Veteran Dead”, The Ottawa Citizen, 4 January 1913, at 20.
170 Ibid, at 19.
171 The preceding is adapted from: http://www.patrimoineculturel. gouv.qc.ca/detail.do?methode=consulter&id=182946&type=bien#.Xu0gmS1q2fA (accessed on June 18, 2020).
172 Christopher Carr, “Pink House”, Up the Gatineau! Vol. 19 (1992), at 16-23.
173 Lot 13S 1/4, Range VII.
174 Charles Pink is my 1st cousin 4x removed.
175 Lot 16NE, Range VI; Lot 15N, Range VI. Note, the latter includes a notation “James Pink 1822”, which is a reference to the fact that the property was previously owned by James Pink, who as noted above first arrived in Canada in 1822. See Pioneers of the Upper Ottawa, “Genealogy of the Valley,” at 52. As shown on the 1875 Valuation Roll map, the property originally owned by James Pink includes the western tip of Pink Lake in Gatineau Park (see https://ncc-ccn.gc.ca/places/pink-lake).
176 Samuel Pink is my 1st cousin 4x removed.
177 Keeping track of who is who among the Pinks can be difficult because of the repetition of names. To simplify: Charles is the son of Samuel, and Samuel is the son of (Samuel’s brother) Charles!
178 In addition to his family, Samuels’ father Charles returned with his parents, Charles Pink Sr. (1750-1848) and Isabelle Currie (1752-1842).
179 “Farmer Killed by Car: Motorman Was Brother-in-Law of Victim”, The Montreal Gazette, 26 April 1920. See also “Pink Case Verdict Accidental Death: Brother-in-Law Motorman Is Absolved of Blame”, The Ottawa Journal, 1 May 1920.
180 “Motor Dealer Dies Nine Days After Brother”, The Ottawa Citizen, 12 February 1930, at 1.
181 Gwendolyn (Gwen) Leslie (1902-1968) was the daughter of Joseph (Joe) Thomas Leslie (1875-1954) and Martha Maxwell (1867-1935), who in turn was the daughter of Thomas “Red Tom” Maxwell (1835-1900) and Agnes Pink Larmour (1834-1921). Gwen was my 1st cousin 2x removed..
182 Google maps; downloaded July 10, 2020..
183 Inset.